Nine months before Rosa Parks, Claudette Colvin refused to give up her seat on a segregated bus. The police dragged her off the bus and took her to jail. She was only 15 years old. Colvin was a star witness in the Browder vs Gayle case. The case was pivotal in ending segregation on public transportation in Alabama.
In 1906, O.W.Hurley was a rich African American who moved from Arkansas to Oklahoma and purchased over 40 acres of land. He sold that land to other African Americans. During the oil boom in the 1910s the Tulsa area economy thrived.